REALM: Retrieval-Augmented Language Model Pre-Training

Jul 12, 2020



Language model pre-training has been shown to capture a surprising amount of world knowledge, crucial for NLP tasks such as question answering. However, this knowledge is stored implicitly in the parameters of a neural network, requiring ever-larger networks to cover more facts. To capture knowledge in a more modular and interpretable way, we augment language model pre-training with a latent knowledge retriever, which allows the model to retrieve and attend over documents from a large corpus such as Wikipedia, used during pre-training, fine-tuning and inference. For the first time, we show how to pre-train such a knowledge retriever in an unsupervised manner, using masked language modeling as the learning signal and backpropagating through a retrieval step that considers millions of documents. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Retrieval-Augmented Language Model pre-training (REALM) by fine-tuning on the challenging task of Open-domain Question Answering (Open-QA). We compare against state-of-the-art models for both explicit and implicit knowledge storage on three popular Open-QA benchmarks, and find that we outperform all previous methods by a significant margin (4-16



About ICML 2020

The International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) is the premier gathering of professionals dedicated to the advancement of the branch of artificial intelligence known as machine learning. ICML is globally renowned for presenting and publishing cutting-edge research on all aspects of machine learning used in closely related areas like artificial intelligence, statistics and data science, as well as important application areas such as machine vision, computational biology, speech recognition, and robotics. ICML is one of the fastest growing artificial intelligence conferences in the world. Participants at ICML span a wide range of backgrounds, from academic and industrial researchers, to entrepreneurs and engineers, to graduate students and postdocs.

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