The threat of automation implies a race between education and technology. In most developing countries, educational systems are not providing workers with the skills necessary to compete in today’s job markets. The growing mismatch between skills demand and supply holds economic growth back and undermines opportunities. At the same time, the returns to education are high in most developing countries, and growing skill premiums are evident in much of the world. Automation simultaneously results in deskilling and imposes a need for new skills, and is changing what education will need to look like in the future.