Geometric Losses for Distributional Learning Building upon recent advances in entropy-regularized optimal transport and upon Fenchel duality between measures and continuous functions, we propose in this paper a generalization of the logistic loss, incorporating a metric or cost between classes. Unlike previous attempts to use optimal transport distances for learning, our loss results in unconstrained convex objective functions, supports infinite (or very large) class spaces, and naturally defines a geometric generalization of the softmax operator. The geometric properties of this loss makes it suitable for predicting sparse and singular distributions, for instance supported on curves or hyper-surfaces. We study the theoretical properties of our loss and showcase its effectiveness on two applications: ordinal regression and drawing generation. Classification from Positive, Unlabeled and Biased Negative Data In binary classification, there are situations where negative (N) data are too diverse to be fully labelled and that is when positive-unlabeled (PU) learning comes into play. However, collecting a non-representative N set that contains only a small portion of all possible N data can be much easier in many practical situations. This paper studies a novel classification framework which incorporates such biased N (bN) data in PU learning. We provide a method based on empirical risk minimization to address this PUbN classification problem. Our approach can be regarded as a novel example-reweighting algorithm, with the weight of each example computed through a preliminary step that draws inspiration from PU learning. We also derive an estimation error bound for the proposed method. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in not only PUbN learning scenarios but also ordinary PU leaning scenarios on several benchmark datasets. Complementary-Label Learning for Arbitrary Losses and Models In contrast to the standard classification paradigm where the true (or possibly noisy) class is given to each training pattern, complementary-label learning only uses training patterns each equipped with a complementary label, which only specifies one of the classes that the pattern does not belong to. The goal of this paper is to derive a novel framework of complementary-label learning with an unbiased estimator of the classification risk, for arbitrary losses and models---all existing methods have failed to achieve this goal. With this framework, model/hyper-parameter selection (through cross-validation) becomes possible without the need of any ordinarily labeled validation data, while using any linear/non-linear models or convex/non-convex loss functions. We further improve the risk estimator by a non-negative correction and gradient-descent-ascent trick, and demonstrate its superiority through experiments. Learning to Infer Program Sketches Our goal is to build systems which write code automatically from the kinds of specifications humans can most easily provide, such as examples and natural language instruction. The key idea of this work is that a flexible combination of pattern recognition and explicit reasoning can be used to solve these complex programming problems. We propose a method for dynamically integrating these types of information. Our novel intermediate representation and training algorithm allow a program synthesis system to learn, without direct supervision, when to rely on pattern recognition and when to perform symbolic search. Our model matches the memorization and generalization performance of neural synthesis and symbolic search, respectively, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on a dataset of simple English description-to-code programming problems. Hierarchically Structured Meta-learning In order to learn quickly with few samples, meta-learning utilizes prior knowledge learned from previous tasks. However, a critical challenge in meta-learning is task uncertainty and heterogeneity, which can not be handled via globally sharing knowledge among tasks. In this paper, based on gradient-based meta-learning, we propose a hierarchically structured meta-learning (HSML) algorithm that explicitly tailors the transferable knowledge to different clusters of tasks. Inspired by the way human beings organize knowledge, we resort to a hierarchical task clustering structure to cluster tasks. As a result, the proposed approach not only addresses the challenge via the knowledge customization to different clusters of tasks, but also preserves knowledge generalization among a cluster of similar tasks. To tackle the changing of task relationship, in addition, we extend the hierarchical structure to a continual learning environment. The experimental results show that our approach can achieve state-of-the-art performance in both toy-regression and few-shot image classification problems. Bridging Theory and Algorithm for Domain Adaptation This paper addresses the problem of unsupervised domain adaption from theoretical and algorithmic perspectives. Existing domain adaptation theories naturally imply minimax optimization algorithms, which connect well with the adversarial-learning based domain adaptation methods. However, several disconnections still form the gap between theory and algorithm. We extend previous theories (Ben-David et al., 2010; Mansour et al., 2009c) to multiclass classification in domain adaptation, where classifiers based on scoring functions and margin loss are standard algorithmic choices. We introduce a novel measurement, margin disparity discrepancy, that is tailored both to distribution comparison with asymmetric margin loss, and to minimax optimization for easier training. Using this discrepancy, we derive new generalization bounds in terms of Rademacher complexity. Our theory can be seamlessly transformed into an adversarial learning algorithm for domain adaptation, successfully bridging the gap between theory and algorithm. A series of empirical studies show that our algorithm achieves the state-of-the-art accuracies on challenging domain adaptation tasks. Transfer Learning for Related Reinforcement Learning Tasks via Image-to-Image Translation Despite the remarkable success of Deep RL in learning control policies from raw pixels, the resulting models do not generalize. We demonstrate that a trained agent fails completely when facing small visual changes, and that fine-tuning---the common transfer learning paradigm---fails to adapt to these changes, to the extent that it is faster to re-train the model from scratch. We show that by separating the visual transfer task from the control policy we achieve substantially better sample efficiency and transfer behavior, allowing an agent trained on the source task to transfer well to the target tasks. The visual mapping from the target to the source domain is performed using unaligned GANs, resulting in a control policy that can be further improved using imitation learning from imperfect demonstrations. We demonstrate the approach on synthetic visual variants of breakout game, as well as on transfer between subsequent levels of Road Fighter, a Nintendo car-driving game. A visualization of our approach can be seen in \url{https://streamable.com/ymv8v} and \url{https://streamable.com/fvy1d}. Learning What and Where to Transfer As the application of deep learning has expanded to real-world problems with insufficient volume of training data, transfer learning recently has gained much attention as means of improving the performance in such small-data regime. However, when existing methods are applied between heterogeneous architectures and tasks, it becomes more important to manage their detailed configurations and often requires exhaustive tuning on them for the desired performance. To address the issue, we propose a novel transfer learning approach based on meta-learning that can automatically learn what knowledge to transfer from the source network to where in the target network. Given source and target networks, we propose an efficient training scheme to learn meta-networks that decide (a) which pairs of layers between the source and target networks should be matched for knowledge transfer and (b) which features and how much knowledge from each feature should be transferred. We validate our meta-transfer approach against recent transfer learning methods on various datasets and network architectures, on which our automated scheme significantly outperforms the prior baselines that find “what and where to transfer” in a hand-crafted manner.